Civil Engineering

Civil Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING
Throughout history, civil engineers have designed and built facilities that have advanced civilization and provided for a higher standard of living. From developing better water supplies, municipal sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants to the design of buildings to protect citizens from natural hazards and provide health care, to improved agriculture through water resource development and distribution projects to rapid and dramatic changes in transportation systems, civil engineers have developed the basic infrastructure on which modern society depends. Civil engineers were the first and continue to be dedicated to technology development for the common good.

From the pyramids of Egypt to the exploration of space, civil engineers have always faced challenges of the future advancing civilization and building quality in to life. Today the world is undergoing vast changes the technological revolution, population growth, environmental concerns, and more. All create unique challenges for civil engineers, and now is the best time to find out if civil engineering is the right career.

Civil Engineering is for people who desire to see the nation grow and enhance the quality of social life. As a civil engineer, you will help development of industry, transportation systems and infrastructure that are the milestones of our economy. Civil Engineering is about community service, development, and improvement. It includes planning, design, construction, and operation of facilities essential to modern life. As a civil engineer one will be called upon to play a major role in developing water, oil, gas, mineral and other natural resources and address energy needs and urban community planning.

The prevailing boom in the infrastructure and construction sectors has brought the limelight back into civil engineering, with the demand for civil engineers growing exponentially. With growing numbers of private builders and firms the need for quality civil engineers will shoot up. This sector is witnessing heightened activity as a result of which there has been a substantial increase in the number of projects. Thus there is a surge in demand for quality civil engineers.
And this boom is definitely creating employment opportunities for the skilled civil engineers. Most people can not imagine life without the many contributions of civil engineers to the publics health, safety and standard of living. Only by exploring civil engineerings influence in shaping the world we know today, can we creatively envision the progress of our tomorrows.

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Industrial Deafness and Tinnitus

Industrial Deafness and Tinnitus

There are a lot of problems seen today where work is concerned, and one of these is hearing problems such as industrial deafness and tinnitus. When you work around a lot of loud or noisy machinery all day it only makes sense that you might experience some hearing problems after a while. This can happen to anyone as they get older, but they are seen in younger people when they have industrial-type jobs where they must work around sudden, frequent loud noises or long, sustained periods of louder-than-normal noise. Both of these types of noise can cause deafness over time, and they can also lead to tinnitus, which is a ringing or roaring noise in one or both ears. This can come and go, but in severe cases it is generally permanent and does not go away. The sufferer simply has to deal with it, and can have trouble hearing normal conversations, the television, the telephone and other things because the sounds have to be loud enough to be heard over the tinnitus.
 
If you’ve already experienced industrial deafness or tinnitus there is not that much that can be done for you.

Hearing aids can help some people depending on the degree of hearing loss that they have, as well as the type of hearing loss. Once a person’s hearing loss has progressed beyond a certain point, however, hearing aids might not be able to do much and the person will just have to accept his or her level of deafness and find new and better ways to cope. If you don’t have any of these problems yet and you want to avoid them, there are steps that you can take. The best recommendation would be to simply avoid taking jobs where there is a high level of noise. That’s not always an option, though, so if you do want one of these kinds of jobs, you’ll need to protect your hearing.
 
Earplugs are the best choice, but you must get good ones and you must wear them consistently. If you only wear them part of the time because they’re uncomfortable or you don’t like wearing them you won’t get the level of protection you need. Also, don’t buy the cheapest ones on the planet. Your ears are important, and your hearing is not replaceable, so you want to keep from damaging your ears if possible. Get good earplugs that are designed for the kind of job you have. In the long run, they are well worth it.  

computers and society

computers and society

The decade of the 1980’s saw an explosion in computer technology and computer usage that deeply changed society.  Today computers are a part of everyday life, they are in their simplest form a digital watch or more complexly computers manage power grids, telephone networks, and the money of the world.  Henry Grunwald, former US ambassador to Austria best describes the computer’s functions, “It enables the mind to ask questions, find answers, stockpile knowledge, and devise plans to move mountains, if not worlds.” Society has embraced the computer and accepted it for its many powers which can be used for business, education, research, and warfare.

The first mechanical calculator, a system of moving beads called the abacus, was invented in Babylonia around 500 BC. The abacus provided the fastest method of calculating until 1642, when the French scientist Pascal invented a calculator made of wheels and cogs.  The concept of the modern computer was first outlined in 1833 by the British mathematician Charles Babbage.  His design of an analytical engine contained all of the necessary components of a modern computer: input devices, a memory, a control unit, and output devices.  Most of the actions of the analytical engine were to be done through the use of punched cards.  Even though Babbage worked on the analytical engine for nearly 40 years, he never actually made a working machine.

In 1889 Herman Hollerith, an American inventor, patented a calculating machine that counted, collated, and sorted information stored on punched cards.  His machine was first used to help sort statistical information for the 1890 United States census.  In 1896 Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company to produce similar machines.

In 1924, the company changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation. IBM made punch-card office machinery that dominated business until the late 1960s, when a new generation of computers made the punch card machines obsolete.

The first fully electronic computer used vacuum tubes, and was so secret that its existence was not revealed until decades after it was built.  Invented by the English mathematician Alan Turing and in 1943, the Colossus was the computer that British cryptographers used to break secret German military codes. The first modern general-purpose electronic computer was ENIAC or the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. Designed by two American engineers, John Mauchly and Presper Eckert, Jr., ENIAC was first used at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.

The invention of the transistor in 1948 brought about a revolution in computer development, vacuum tubes were replaced by small transistors that generated little heat and functioned perfectly as switches. Another big breakthrough in computer miniaturization came in 1958, when Jack Kilby designed the first integrated circuit. It was a wafer that included transistors, resistors, and capacitors the major components of electronic circuitry. Using less expensive silicon chips, engineers succeeded in putting more and more electronic components on each chip. Another revolution in microchip technology occurred in 1971 when the American engineer Marcian Hoff combined the basic elements of a computer on one tiny silicon chip, which he called a microprocessor. This microprocessor the Intel 4004 and the hundreds of variations that followed are the dedicated computers that operate thousands of modern products and form the heart of almost every general-purpose electronic computer.

By the mid-1970s, microchips and microprocessors had reduced the cost of the thousands of electronic components required in a computer. The first affordable desktop computer designed specifically for personal use was called the Altair 8800, first sold in 1974.  In 1977 Tandy Corporation became the first major electronics firm to produce a personal computer.  Soon afterward, a company named Apple Computer, founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs, began producing computers.  IBM introduced its Personal Computer, or PC, in 1981, and  as a result of competition from the makers of clones the price of personal computers fell drastically.  Just recently Apple Computer allowed its computers to be cloned by competitors.

During this long time of computer evolution, business has grasped at the computer, hoping to use it to increase productivity and minimize costs.  The computer has been put on assembly lines, controlling robots.  In offices computers have popped up everywhere, sending information and allowing numbers to easily be processed.  Two key words that apply today are downsizing and productivity.  Companies hope the increase worker productivity, meaning less working which then allows for downsizing.  The computer is supposed to be the magic wand that will make productivity shoot through the roof, but in some cases the computer was a waste of time and money.

Reliance Insurance is an example of computer technology falling flat on its face, wasting a great deal of money, while producing little or no results.  “Paper Free in 1983″  was the slogan Reliance used because the it had just spent millions of dollars to put computers everywhere and network them.  The employees had E-mail and other programs that where to eliminate paper and increase productivity.  The company chiefs sat back and waited for a boom in productivity that never arrived.

Other examples of the disappointments of computer are not hard to find.  Citicorp bank lost 0 million dollars developing a system in the 1980’s that gave up to the  minute updates on oil prices.  Knight-Ridder tried to develop a home shopping network on the television, and lost million.  Wang laboratories almost went under when they put all of their resources toward developing imaging technology that no one wanted.  Ben & Jerry’s ice cream put in an E-mail system and out of 200 employees less than 30% used the system.  Everything attempted then is currently very common today; on-line services provide stock and commodities quotes, QVC is a home shopping channel on cable television, almost every picture in a magazine has been retouched with imaging technology, and even JRHS has an E-mail system that seems to be valuable.

Other corporations have seized computer technology and used it to reduce costs, but usually the human factor is lost. The McDonalds fast food chain is an example of a company that has embraced computers to help productivity and lower operating costs.  The McDonalds kitchen has become a computer timed machine, “You don’t have to know how to cook, you don’t have to know how to think.  There’s a procedure for everything and you just follow the procedure” .  The workers have in essence become robots controlled by the computer to achieve maximum productivity.  The computer knows the procedure and alerts the worker of events in the procedure and all the worker must do is execute what the beeper of buzzer means.  With such little knowledge of the making of the food, workers have become disposable, “It takes a special kind of person to be able to move before he can think.  We find people like that and use them until they quit.” .

McDonalds managers work even more closely with the computers that control them.  The computer generates a graph of expected business and tells the manager how many people to schedule and when, all the manager does is fill in the blanks with names.  McDonalds computers also keep close track of sales and expenditures, “The central office can check . . . how many Egg McMuffins were sold on Friday from 9 to 9:30 two weeks ago or two years ago, either in an entire store or at any particular register.”  .  The main  things computers do in a manual job is to speed things up, “Thinking generally slows this operation down.” , and for this reason computers have made manual jobs ones of extreme monotony and no creativity.

White collar jobs have remained virtually the same, computers have just helped to enhance creativity and attempted to raise productivity.  E-mail, word processors, spreadsheets, and personal organization programs are widely used by white collar workers.  These programs help to make impressive presentations, communicate, and keep track of everything  so the worker can get more done, and therefore less workers are needed, dropping costs.  This has not happened, over the last 30 years white collar worker productivity has remained the same, while blue collar productivity has almost quadrupled.  This is due mainly to the fact that white collar workers are required to think and adapt to situations quickly, which computers at the moment are unable to due, they only follow code to give a planned response.  The blue collar job requires less knowledge and skill, and so is easily replaceable by a computer.

Computers though have not been a failure in business, they allow information to be shared very quickly.  The home office is a product of computers, people can work from home instead of going into an office.  This has not become very popular due to the lack of touch between people, the loss of contact.  It is the human factor that helps to make business run, the random thought that saves the day, something a computer is incapable of doing.  Computers may help quicken business, but they will never replace people, only reduce their knowledge or creativity by automating the process.

Another form of computers is attempting to totally eliminate people from the picture.  Expert systems are large mainframe computers that have the knowledge of an expert individual loaded into it, and makes decisions that are very complex.  An expert in field is chosen and interviewed for sometimes over a year about their job and how they make decisions.  All of this knowledge is refined and put into a computer.  Another person then enters some statistics into the finished machine and magically a large printout will come out of the machine in minutes with the answers.  Expert systems are used mainly in large investing corporations, but some have been developed to help diagnose diseases.  The hope is one day a patient will lie down and a couple of sensors and probes will go over the body and then a computer printout will have the name of your illness and the drug to cure it.  Expert systems have been used very little mainly due to their high price and because of the lack of trust in them.

Computers have also reached into other places besides business, schools.  Children sit in front of computers and are drilled or taught about certain subjects selected by the teacher.  This method of teaching has come under fire, some people believe the computer should be a tool not a teacher, while others believe why learn from a normal teacher when a computerized version of the best can teach.  The technology of today could allow for a teacher in another country to teach a class through video confrencing.  The attempts to spread computer technology into the class room have produced results and taught lessons as to how computers should be applied.

The Belridge school district in McKittrick California was one of the most technological school districts in America.  Every student had two computers, one at school and one at home, which contained many brand new teaching programs.  The high school had a low powered television station that broadcasted every day.  The classes were small and parent involvement was high.  Even with all of these wonderful things one-third of the first grade class was below the national average in standardized tests after the first year.  Parents were enraged that after all of  the money spent nothing had happened, that the technology hadn’t made the children become smarter, and so all of the computers were gone the next year and traditional teaching was put back in place.

Belridge is an extreme example of people expecting the computers to do magic and make the children learn faster and better, much like companies hoped to raise productivity.  The children were left to learn from the computer, which they did, but nothing changed things actually got worse.  One parent realized, “. . . good teachers are the heart and soul of teaching.” , because computers can only present facts and explain them to a certain extent, where as a good teacher can explain to the student in many ways.

The US has about 2.7 million computers for 100,000 schools, a ratio of about 1 computer for every 16 students.  Experts say that, “Computers work best when students are left with a goal to achieve. . .” , and students are allowed to achieve this goal with proper direction from a teacher.  After many attempts in the 1980’s to put computers into the classroom a Presidential Plan was drawn up:

1.  Give computers to teachers before students.

2.  Move them out of the labs and into classrooms.

3.  One workstation at least for every two or three students.

4.  Still use flashcards for practice.

5.  Give teachers time to restructure around computers.

6.  Expect to wait 5 to 6 years for change.

 

This plan was to help guide the use of computers into the classroom, and maximize their ability as learning tool.  The computer will enhance the future classroom, but it cannot be expected to produce results quickly.  One thing the use of computers in the classroom will help with is the fear of computers and their ability to confuse people.  Early exposure to computers will help increase computer use in society years from now.

The biggest network of connected computers is broadly referred to as the internet, information superhighway or electronic highway.  The internet was started by the Pentagon as a way for the military to exchange information through computers using modems.  Over the years the internet has evolved into a public resource containing limitless amounts of information.  The main parts of the internet are FTP (file transfer protocol), gopher, telnet, IRC (internet relay chat), and the world wide web.  FTP is used to download large files from one computer to another quickly.  Gopher is much like the world wide web, but without the graphical interface.  Telnet is a remote computer login, this is where most of the hacking occurs.  The IRC is just chat boards where people meet and type in there discussions, but IRC is becoming more involved with pictures of the people and 3-D landscapes.  Besides IRC, these internet applications are becoming obsolete due to the world wide web.

The most popular of the internet applications is the world wide web or WWW.  It is a very graphical interface which can be easily designed and is easy to navigate.  The WWW contains information on everything and anything possibly imaginable.  Movies, sound bytes, pictures, and other media is easily found on the WWW.  It has also turned into a business venture, most large businesses have a “page” on the WWW.  A “page” is a section of the WWW that has its own particular address, usually a large business will have a server with many “pages” on it.  A sample internet address would be “http://www.sony.com/index.html”, the http stands for hypertext transfer protocol, or how the information will be transferred.  “www.sony.com” is the serve name, it is usually a mainframe computer with a T-1 up to T-3 fiber optic telephone line.  The server is expensive not because of the computer but because of the telephone line, a T-1 line which transfers up to 150 megabytes of information per second costs over 00 a month, while a T-3 line transferring 450 megabytes of information can cost over ,000 a month.  The “index.html” is the name of the page on the server, of which the server could have hundreds.

The ability for all of this information has made for a virtual society.  Virtual malls, virtual gambling, virtual identities, and even virtual sex have sprung up all over the internet wanting your credit card number or your First Virtual account number.  First Virtual is a banking system which allows so much money to be deposited at a local bank to be spent on the internet.  Much of the internet has become a large mail order catalog.  With all of these numbers and accounts, questions come up about the security of a persons money and private life, which aren’t easily answered.

Being safe is a new craze today, protection from hackers and other people who will steal personal secrets and then rob someone blind, or protection from pornography or white supremacists or millions of other things on the internet.  The recent communications bill that passed is supposed to ban pornography on the internet, but the effects aren’t apparent.  There are still many US “pages” with pornography that have consent pages warning the user of the pornography ahead.  Even if the US citizens stopped posting pornography, other nations still can and the newsgroups are also international.  Programs such as Surf Watch and Internet Nanny have become popular, blocking out pornographic sites.  The main problem or beauty of the internet is the lack of a controlling party, “It has no officers, it has no policy making board or other entity, it has no rules or regulations and is not selective in terms of providing services.” .  This is a society run by the masses that amounts to pure anarchy, nothing can be controlled or stopped.  The internet is so vast many things could be hidden and known to only a few, for a long time if not forever.  The real problem with controlling the interenet is self control and responsibility, don’t go and don’t see what you don’t want to, and if that amounts to a boring time, then don’t surf the net.

When speaking of computers and the internet one person cannot go unmentioned, Bill Gates, the president of Microsoft.  Microsoft has a basic monopoly on the computer world, they write the operating system and then the applications to run of the system, and when everyone catches up, they change the version.  Bill Gates started the company in the early 1980’s with DOS, or Disk Operating System, which just recently was made obsolete by Windows 95.  Bill Gates has now just ventured into the internet and is now tangling with Netscape, the company with the Internet monopoly.  Netscape gives away its software for free to people who want the basic version, but a version with all of the bells and whistles can be purchased.  Microsoft is hard pressed to win the internet battle, but will take a sizable chunk of Netscape business.  Bill Gates will likely keep running the software industry, with his recent purchase of Lotus, a popular spreadsheet, he further cornered the market.

Computers are one of the most important items society posses today.  The computer will be deeply imbedded in peoples lives even more when the technology progresses more and more.  Businesses will become heavily dependent as video confrencing and working from home become increasingly more feasible, so businesses will break down from large buildings into teams that communicate electronically.  Schools may be taught by the best teachers possible and software may replace teachers, but that is highly unlikely.  The internet will reach into lives, offering an escape from reality and an information source that is extremely vast.  Hopefully  society will further embrace the computer as a tool, a tool that must be tended to and assisted, not left to do its work alone.  Even so computers will always be present, because the dreams of today are made with computers, planned on computers, and then assembled by computers, the only thing the computer can’t do is dream, at least right now.

 

Electrical Engineering Jobs with Computer Networking Associates Degree

Electrical Engineering Jobs with Computer Networking Associates Degree

Someone very intelligently said, “Computers have lots of memory but no imagination.” Thus computer networking plays a vital role. It is referred as a network that posses an assortment of hardware elements, computers are interlinked by communication channels that provide sharing of resources and information. The major classification amongst the networks involves the medium to transport the data, communication protocol, scale and topology. Computer Networking Associates Degree provides the students with fundamental skills to acquire education and become proficient in this field.  

What is Computer Networking?

The communication protocol is utilized for the rules and data formats in order to replace the computer data card. The most commonly used communication protocols are Ethernet, hardware and link layer and internet protocol suite.

Hardware and link layer is always present in local area networks while internet protocol suite is prominent in internet networking like data communication between multiple networks, host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats. Knowledge required for this field is both theoretical as well as practical, thus education in this field can be covered under electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology, computer engineering, etc…

Career in Computer Networking Requires…

In order to be a successful network administrator one should be really efficient to have a sound understanding of the field right from the beginning.

This is basically a time consuming process in order to acquire efficient results. It needs patience and commitments towards the occupation. Networking on the whole means interacting with wide range of people and mentioning them a brief description of what one needs. Networking is moreover dependant on the helping others, establishing credibility and trust in the actual relationships.

Computer Networking involves…

Computer Networking Associates Degree is responsible for training the students with knowledge and expertise to establish a constructive career in networking field from the professional prospect. Electrical Engineering is moreover considered as a major stream intriguing qualified professionals in the networking sector. Networking is deceived by many people as a selling profession. However the profession not only helps in establishing but also managing the relationships from the business point of view.

 Gain Knowledge with Computer Networking Associates Degree.

Networking basically is a huge business however in the meanwhile it is prominent for the students to understand the industry requisite and social situation to carry out the business. Computer Networking Associates Degree trains the students with all these skills. A student with electrical engineering degree is capable of sharing the information with the clients on one hand while managing the business on the other hand. Other degrees like telecommunications, computer science, information technology, computer engineering also trains the student in the computer networking field. Students need to aim at their self desired goals and take assertive steps to acquire it.

Major Skills embodied in the students.

The major skills acquired while acquiring Computer Networking Associates Degree students are coached with various requisite skills like administering local area network, installing and troubleshooting communication hardware as well as software, assimilating new technologies and progressing the business. Other skills acquired during this degree include the installation and administration of switches, network routers, and related equipment.

Future Prospect…

Wide range of colleges and universities do provide this degree depending on the choice of the students.  Other degree that provide similar ground of education for networking includes electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology, computer engineering and many more. Annual salary of the students after acquiring this degree is about ,900 while careers available in this field are network administration, network installation, network security, network support and many more. Students can as well opt for higher education with bachelor, master or PhD degree after associate degree in order to grab better career opportunities in this field. 

Industrial Electrical Works “?” Manufacturers Of Electrical Control Panels And Automation And Protec

Industrial Electrical Works “?” Manufacturers Of Electrical Control Panels And Automation And Protec
Industrial Electrical Works (IEW) is the leading manufacturing unit working and developing itself in the field of manufacturing the LV Electric panels and electric control and protective solutions. Our Product range includes Industrial Panels, PLC control panels, VFD control panel, Power factor Panel, DG Set control Panel, Electrical Control Panel, AC drive control panel, Slipring Motor control Panel, Sugar Mills conveyer panel, Wire Drawing machine control panel and lots more.

Industrial Electrical Works is a hardcore company which is becoming the leading manufacturer of Control Panels and protective solutions which enhances the production capacity of machines through better utilization of power and energy. Industrial Electrical works are one of the leaders in the field of Automation and Protection systems by being the marked up manufacturers of PLC Control Panel, VFD control panel, Distribution Board Panel, Power factor control panel, A C Drive Control Panel, Slipring Motor Control Panel, Wire Drawing Machine Control Panel.

Industrial Electrical works is a premier manufacturer of Automation tools such as electric control panels and protective systems thereby supplying world class panels all over the world. We work on the vision of providing Excellency in our products with proper Research & Development. We follow principles of monitoring and control and continuously revitalize our skills to produce new and more productive automation tools for machines.

Electrical panels manufactured by Industrial Electrical Works are in great demand theses days as they minimizes the power consumption by a particular part called A C frequency drive which increases its production capacity and reduces cost of production. These Electrical control panels minimize the cost of production and thereby improve the quality and strength of a particular machine. Products range includes all types of Electrical Control Panels such as PLC Control Panel, VFD control panel, Distribution Board Panel, Power factor control panel, A C Drive Control Panel, Slipring Motor Control Panel, Wire Drawing Machine Control Panel, etc.

Industrial Electrical Works is occupied with technical professional team which focuses on full customer satisfaction thereby resulting in exponential growth of the Company as well as customer. Products are manufactured with complete R & D and inspection and then supplied to the customer. Industrial Electric Works has advanced technicians and engineers who have tremendous experience of the Industry which guarantees the World best quality of the product manufactured.

Electrical Control Panels manufactured by Industrial Electrical Works are not limited to any particular industry. Driven by the above said feature, Industrial electrical works manufactured and supplied all types of Electrical Control Panels to various Industries such as Pharmaceutical Industries, Food Processing Industries, Wire Drawing Machine Manufacturing Industries, Steel Plants, Chemical Plants, Export Houses, and lots more.

The Process of manufacturing Electrical Control Panels by Industrial Electrical Works includes Designing, Detailed Engineering, Fabrication, Erection, Installation, commissioning, and supply which in the last provide a world class product for all types of Industries. The above mentioned process helps an Industry to gain up a more secured production thereby reducing cost of production and improving production capacity through automation tools manufactured by Industrial Electrical Panels.

Industrial Electrical Works has been serving the Industry from last many years by providing world class Electrical Control Panels such as PLC Control Panel, VFD control panel, Distribution Board Panel, Power factor control panel, A C Drive Control Panel, Slipring Motor Control Panel, Wire Drawing Machine Control Panel, etc.